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Muscles respond to the demands we place on them. So, if your goal is muscle hypertrophy (increase the size of the muscle), you need to increase the amount of stress on the muscle.Lift Heavy
Heavy lifting creates micro-tears in the muscle which trigger the body’s repair system. Cells, hormones, and nutrients are activated and sent to muscle to help repair the tears. Overtime, this process helps create bigger, stronger muscles equipped to meet the demands consistently placed on them.Repetitions/Sets
The recommended number reps for muscle growth is typically 6-12 reps and ideally 3-4 sets. So, in alignment with lifting heavy, the weight needs to be heavy enough that your client cannot complete more than 12 reps each set.Proper Form
It is important to ensure you use proper form throughout all sets. Heavy weight isn’t the only goal. If the exercise cannot be done properly with heavy weights, decrease the weight. If your client is lifting improperly, they may not be engaging the proper muscles and they are much more likely to get injured.
For muscles to grow, they need proper nutrition. Review the following key elements to get adequate nutrition for muscle growth.Consume Enough Protein
Protein is one of the most essential macronutrients (protein, carbs, and fat) for building muscle. Protein is made up amino acids that help repair and build the micro tears that occur during heavy lifting. This helps rebuild the muscle bigger and stronger. For building muscle, research suggests women need 1.6-1.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight each day (1). And, more isn’t necessarily better. Much more protein than that may not provide any value in regard to muscle growth (2). Good sources of protein include poultry, fish, eggs, hemp seed, and red meat.Consume Enough Calories
According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020, women should typically eat between 1,600 and 2,400 calories a day. However, the actual number of calories you need varies based on age, height, metabolism, weight, physical activity level, etc. You should first determine how many calories they need daily with their current level of activity.
The question then becomes: How many additional calories do they need to build muscle?
This can be a delicate balance. Too many calories can add fat weight. Not enough calories may not be sufficient for muscle growth. Many fitness professionals suggest the magic number is somewhere between 250-500 extra calories per day as it takes somewhere around 2,500 calories to build a pound of muscle.Don’t Forget Micronutrients
The body needs a variety of vitamins and minerals to function properly. Removing toxins, supplying the body with oxygen, feeding the muscles, etc., are all essential for exercise. So, although there is an emphasis on protein to help build muscle, don’t forget about all the other important nutrients in your diet that make the body work!
Allowing the muscles to recover is one of the most essential parts of muscle growth. During heavy lifting, the muscle fibers tear. Rest periods are when the muscles build, heal, and grow.
There are two key elements to rest in regard to supporting muscle growth:Rest Time Between Workouts
You can lift hard and eat well all they want. But, if they don’t allow the muscles the time to recover and rebuild themselves, muscle growth will be slow or non-existent. Not only does muscle tissue need rest for building and recovery but, without it, the body may become more susceptible to injury.Adequate Sleep
Lack of sleep can hinder muscle growth. One study found a substantial difference in muscle mass when comparing subjects that slept 5.5 hours verses 8.5 hours each night (3). The amount of sleep that each individual needs can vary. However, experts typically recommend 7-9 hours of sleep each night for overall health.
It will take time for the body to grow and change. You shouldn’t expect to see changes after one workout in the weight room. It may take 1-2 months to see visible signs of muscle hypertrophy.
When it comes to staying consistent with frequency, one study found that the major muscle groups should be worked at least twice a week to maximize muscle growth (4). And, it isn’t ideal to have those two days back to back. Remember, there should be rest in between.